Folk music in Ukraine reflects the gains and traditions of the Kyivan Rus. These were mainly ritual songs sung a cappella. Historical songs (dumy) and kobza-playing appeared as typical Ukrainian folk genres in the sixteenth century. The Hlukhin School of singing and Kyiv-Mohyla Academy was the core of musical education from the seventeenth to early nineteenth century’s. Ukrainian choral music reached its peak owing to the works of Dmytro Bortniansky, Maksym Berezovsky, and Artemiy Vedel.
The first Ukrainian opera, Zaporozhets za Dunayem (A Zaporozhzhian Cossack Beyond the Danube), by Semen Hulak-Artemovsky was written in 1863. Ukrainian classical music was dominated by Mykola Lysenko (1842–1912) and in the twentieth its traditions were further augmented by Levko Revutsky, Borys Liatoshynsky, Stanislav Liudkevich, Volodymyr Barvinsky, Kost Dankevych, and Hryhory Maiboroda. Independence has encouraged the development of all musical trends in the country. Opera art festivals, international organ and piano music festivals have become a tradition.